"Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi and Anhui Cultural Travel" Entering Western Yue

CREATE_TIME:2013-11-13 VIEWS:695

Reprinted from People's Network Anhui Channel

Visiting the old headquarters of the Second Independent Division by an interview delegation


An Interview Mission to the Shengshi Tianyuan International Health Park


An Investigation of the Interview Group in Sikong Mountain

"Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi and Anhui Cultural Travel" into Western Yue [1]

  

 Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi and Anhui Culture

  —— Yuexi Red, Folk Customs, Health Care, Zen and other cultures become the cultural landmarks of the four provinces



  People's Daily News Nov. 10, "Hunan, Hunan, Hubei and Jiangxi City Evening News" jointly organized by the four provinces of Anhui, Hunan, Jiangxi, entered our county, looking for red footprints, looking at folk culture, understanding the way of health preservation, visiting Zen holy places.

  The Yangtze River is like a ribbon, linking the four provinces of Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi and Anhui. Hunan and Hubei are the birthplaces of Chu. Jiangxi used to be called Wutou and Chuwei. Anhui has a strong flavor of Chu culture. The four provinces share the same human and cultural ties. This interview was jointly sponsored by Xin'an Evening News, Chutian Metropolitan Daily, Sanxiang Metropolitan Daily and Jiangnan Metropolitan Daily, aiming at soring out the cultural traditions and resources of the four provinces, tracing back and looking forward to the past, present and future of the "Middle Triangle" cultural circle and the prosperity of the cultural industries and undertakings of the four provinces in recent years by comparing the vertical and horizontal exchanges among the regional cultural coordinates of the four provinces. The culture of four provinces of Anhui, Hubei, Hunan and Jiangxi has produced a strong collision and blending. In the past month, four media special correspondent groups traveled through the four provinces of Hunan, Hunan, Jiangxi and Anhui, visited cultural landmarks, sorted out the origins, questioned the development trend, and sought the way of integration.



Wang's Ancestral Hall: The Glorious Poems of Red Yuexi

  This ancient building in the late Qing Dynasty was the site of the headquarters of the Second Independent Division. Walking into Wang's ancestral temple, the interviewing group followed the commentator to look back on this wonderful period of time.

  In February 1930, a famous riot broke out in Jianshui village in the paradise area, and an independent division of the buried hill armed forces was established. It was later renamed the Second Independent Division of the Central Committee of the Chinese Workers and Peasants Red Army. The headquarters were located in the Wangshi Temple. In July 1930, after the withdrawal of the headquarters of the Second Independent Division, the interior furnishings were destroyed by the Kuomintang reactionaries. After liberation, the old revolutionary site was well preserved under the protection of the people's government and the local people. In 1962 and 1981, the Anhui Provincial People's Government published it twice as a provincial key cultural relic protection unit.



Dabie Mountain Folklore Museum: Historical Memory of "Farming, Reading and Heritage"

  The "Dabie Mountain Folklore Exhibition" in the West Chamber of Wang's Temple is the most worthwhile place to see at the old site of the Command of the Second Independent Division of the Central Committee of the Red Army.

  More than 300 sets of folklore objects will be collected in Yuexi from the late Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China. They will be displayed in several aspects, such as farming, textile, teaching and reading, marriage, culture and entertainment, and vividly reproduce the local folklore culture of Yuexi at the beginning of the last century. Here is the saying "five miles have different sounds and ten miles have different customs". It is a natural Folk Museum in the Dabie Mountains, which shows the simple life of the people of our county. In the Folklore Museum, the delegation also listened carefully to a song of Yuexi Gaoqiang, with high-pitched voice and harmonious voices. Yuexi Gaoqiang, accompanied by gongs and drums, won applause from the delegation. "Yuexi Gaoqiang is different from Huangmei Opera, and most Yuexi people prefer to listen to Gaoqiang. They set up a stage for the festival to have fun together." Chu Qing, head of the Publicity Office of the county Party committee, said. Paper-cut lanterns, health cloth shoes, as well as the production techniques of mulberry paper, a national intangible cultural heritage, made the members of the interview group feel the ingenuity of the people of Yuexi.



Tianyue Bay: Blueprint of Dabie Mountain Eco-health

The mysterious 30 degree north latitude line gives Yuexi a unique natural environment. It is a national ecological demonstration area. It is called "natural garden", "natural oxygen bar" and "species gene bank" by experts. It has "mountain springs and waterfalls, exotic flowers and precious trees, ancient temple stone carvings, Valley villages". The territory is beautiful with 73% forest coverage, and the content of negative oxygen ions is more than 6 times of WHO's "fresh air" standard. Good primitive ecology makes many urban people yearn for it. Yuexi's health-preserving culture came into being at the historic moment. Zhang Jie, General Manager of Tianyuewan, said, "There are three medicines in the Emperor's Internal Classic, spirit and spirit." This time, different from the previous health preservation, the health preservation culture and Zen culture will be integrated to truly achieve self-cultivation and mind cultivation. "Buddhism nourishes the mind and Taoism nourishes the body. Yuexi has such rich cultural and ecological resources that it can really make good use of them." Gong Xudong, deputy editor of Sanxiang Metropolitan Daily, commented on the symposium.


Sikongshan: The First Mountain of Chinese Zen Buddhism, Creating Tourism Brand

 Searching for the bell, climbing the Daxiong Palace, overlooking the quiet mountains and forests, the mood is like a mirror that brushes away the dirt, gradually clearing up. The elder Sikongshan introduced the origin of Sikongshan and Buddha as well as the correct posture of worshiping Buddha to the visiting press corps. The members of the press corps studied carefully and felt the Buddha culture of teaching people to be good and pursuing wisdom. "The cloudy peaks in front of us are like a sleeping Buddha statue. This is the sleeping Buddha Mountain in Yuexi." The elder pointed to the sleeping Foshan in the distance and introduced it to reporters from the four provinces.

  Sikong Mountain is the birthplace of Chinese Buddhist Zen culture and the place where Hui Hui, the second ancestor of Zen Buddhism, can practice successfully. Sikong Mountain was also loved by the ancient literati and Mohists. Li Bai chanted poems and praised it: "Broken rocks cut melons, the scenery breaks green cliffs. The Tianhe River comes from it, and the Baiyun River Valley rises. Comrade Zhao Puchu, former vice-chairman of the CPPCC National Committee and President of the Chinese Buddhist Association, called Sikong Mountain "the first mountain of Chinese Zen Buddhism". In recent years, more and more people at home and abroad are fascinated by Sikongshan. They come here to find the root of Chinese Zen and visit cultural sites. The construction project of Sikongshan 4A-level scenic spot has also been started. (Wang Rong)



"Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi and Anhui Cultural Travel" into Western Yue [2]

Xin'an Evening News: Red Army in the Old Revolutionary Area, Green Planting in the Dabie Mountains

In 1947, Liu Deng's army leaped thousands of miles into the Dabie Mountains, opening the prelude to the strategic offensive of the War of Liberation. Yesterday, the "Anhui, Hubei, Hunan and Jiangxi Cultural Travel" interview group also marched into the Dabie Mountains and came to Yuexi County, which integrates the old revolutionary areas, poor areas, pure mountainous areas, ecological demonstration areas and "five districts" of ecological function areas, to see folk culture, find red footprints, breathe fresh air and visit Zen holy places.

Experience Farming in Folklore Museum

  Yuexi, located in the hinterland of the Dabie Mountains, is divided into the Yangtze River and Huaihe River, with Wu and Chu in mind. Yesterday, the first stop for the delegation to enter Yuexi was the Dabie Mountain Folklore Museum in the suburbs, where they searched for the civilization of the farming period.

  The five themes of farming, textiles, teaching and reading, marriage and recreation in the high Horsehead wall, gray green tile house and an exhibition hall of Hui style show the simple farming life of Yuexi people one by one. Plough, rake and coir are the necessary tools for men to work in the field. Rollers, spinning wheels and looms show the hard work of women in the farm. Males are married and women are married. Dressing tables, embroidery stools and rocking nests are all in sight. Combining leisure with work, listening to a Yuexi high-pitched tune and watching a puppet show in leisure time can make villagers enjoy themselves for a while.

  Yesterday, in the Folklore Museum, the interviewing group also listened carefully to a song of Yuexi Gaoqiang, with a high-pitched voice and harmonious voices. Yuexi Gaoqiang, accompanied by gongs and drums, won applause from the interviewing group. "Yuexi Gaoqiang is different from Huangmei Opera, and most Yuexi people prefer to listen to Gaoqiang. They set up a stage for the festival to have fun together." Chu Qing, head of Yuexi County Party Committee's publicity office, said. Paper-cut lanterns, health cloth shoes, and mulberry paper used for repairing the Palace Museum all impressed the interviewing group. The delegation could not help admiring the ingenuity of the people of Yuexi when they looked at the pieces of folk crafts in the exhibition hall.



Looking for Red Footprints in Old Revolutionary Areas

  In the years of beacon fire, the red memory is evident in Yuexi. This "Red Tourism County" retains the site of the Memorial Department of the Second Independent Division of the Red Army and the site of the 28th Army. Yesterday, in the memorial hall of Wang's family in the Memorial Department of the Second Independent Division, we watched precious revolutionary cultural relics, and the interviewing group looked back together on this great period of time.

  In the interview, many interesting stories also attracted the attention of journalists. In the exhibition hall, a lion's head woven from a rattan, though it has been more than 80 years, still looks very solid, and the lion dance has been used as a signal of riot. Yuexi abounds in traditional Chinese medicines. During the war years, Yuexi played a great role in restoring the fighting effectiveness of the Red Army. In 1935, the 28th Red Army was pursued by the enemy. General Gao Jingting suffered abdominal pain. In an emergency, Gao Jingting was sent to a local farmer's home. An old Chinese medicine doctor in Yuexi boiled Chinese herbal medicine, which finally made Gao Jingting safe. Later, Gao Jingting, with the 28th Red Army, persisted in the struggle in the areas of Hubei, Henan, Anhui and the Soviet Union.



Breathing fresh air in the mountains

 Yuexi is located in the north latitude 30 degree line, mysterious and strange, with continuous peaks, graceful springs and lush forests. Yesterday, as soon as I arrived in Yuexi, the reporters in the interview group drank a few mouths of fresh air from the mountains. "The air is clean. Take a few more breaths."

  Rarely polluted environment has also bred a number of precious plants, among which Hamamelis, a panda-class plant discovered last year, is the most important. Hamamelis and dinosaurs are living fossils in plants at the same time. In the deep mountains of Yuexi County, there are her traces, and the number is rare in the whole country, which is really amazing.

  A good primitive ecology makes many city people yearn for it. Yuexi's health culture came into being at the historic moment. "The average altitude of our county is 610 meters, and the forest coverage rate is 74%. Previous tests have shown that the negative oxygen ion content in our county is more than six times that of WHO's "Fresh Air" standard. It's a natural oxygen bar. A person in charge of the Propaganda Department of Yuexi County accompanied by him said.

  In 2011, an international health culture industrial park in Yuexi County was officially started, which depicted a blueprint of tourism health preservation in the Dabie Mountains. It is expected that by the end of this year, it will be open to the outside world. "Buddhism nourishes the mind and Taoism nourishes the body. Yuexi has such rich cultural and ecological resources that it can really make good use of them." Gong Xudong, deputy editor of Sanxiang Metropolitan Daily, commented.



Hand in Hand Playing Tourist Cards in Neighbouring Provinces

 The charm of Sikong Mountain in Yuexi County lies in the Buddhist connotation of mountain light and the poetry of water color. Sikong Mountain is a unique mountain, a peak of Yuli, from different perspectives, unpredictable, quite Lushan "cross as a peak on the side of the ridge" charm. Li Bai once wrote a poem, "Broken rocks are like sharpening claws, Languang is green over cliffs. From the Tianhe River, the Baiyun Rising Valley "describes the charming natural scenery of Sikong Mountain.

  In addition to the praise of poetry left by literati, Sikong Mountain is also a well-known mountain with deep Zen culture, which is the second ancestor of Zen, Huike Master Zhuoxi Daochang. Yesterday afternoon, the delegation drove for more than two hours to Panshan Highway, more than 60 kilometers, to Erzu Temple in Sikong Mountain. The newly renovated Pavilion is magnificent. Looking up at Sikong Mountain is like a mage sitting in a robe.

  In recent years, more and more people at home and abroad are fascinated by Sikongshan. They come here to find the root of Chinese Zen and visit cultural sites. The local government is actively launching the construction of Sikongshan 4A scenic spot.

  In addition, in many years of exploration, Yuexi has also found a new way out for the deep cultural tourism resources, that is, from "taking care of each other" to "hand in hand", Dabie Mountain will build an obstacle-free integrated tourism area, together with neighboring provinces such as Hubei, to build a fast tourism transportation network, a Dabie Mountain tourist area is about to emerge. (Zhu Qingling, Chen Qun and Jiang Liuqiao)



"Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi and Anhui Cultural Travel" into Western Yue [3]

  Sanxiang Metropolitan Daily: Flowers blossom in five leaves, fruits come naturally

  The Sinicization of Buddhism in Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi and Anhui Culture Travel was completed in Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi and Anhui

  Editor's note


On October 17, the Hunan-Hubei-Jiangxi-Anhui Cultural Tour, which lasted for more than one month, was launched. The interview group of the four provincial metropolitan newspapers will follow the route of Hubei Hunan Jiangxi Anhui, visit the historical and cultural landmarks of Huanghe Tower, Yueyang Tower, Tengwang Pavilion and other provinces, trace back to the source and clear up the current, and interpret the cultural connection of the four provinces.  

  Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi and Anhui are located in the hinterland of China. They are connected by mountains and rivers, people and cultures. "Huguang fill Sichuan, Jiangxi fill Huguang" not only brings large-scale population flow, but also promotes the development of commerce; Hengshan, Wudang Mountain and other famous mountains and rivers become the favorite holy places of Buddhism and Taoism; the poems circulated in the three famous buildings annotate different literati's morality... Beginning with this issue, "Urban Weekend" will launch a series of in-depth interpretation of cultural lines, combing the origin and flow of historical culture in four provinces from Buddhism and Taoism culture, poetry culture, commercial culture and so on.

  Buddhism originated in India in the 6th century B.C. and was introduced into China during the Han and Wei Dynasties, which had a profound impact on Chinese society and culture. Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi and Anhui provinces not only have deep historical origins with Buddhism, but also play a vital role in the localization of Buddhism in China. The second and third ancestors of Zen spread Dharma in Anhui, the fourth and the fifth ancestors practiced Dharma in Hubei, and Huineng, the sixth ancestor, sent disciples Huai Jean, Qingyuan to Hunan and Jiangxi to spread Dharma after he established his sect. Eventually, the "one flower and five leaves" of Zen was derived from Nanyue, Hunan, and the Sinicization of Buddhism was really completed.  



The second and third ancestors of Zen spread the law in Anhui, aiming at relieving the secular troubles.

  In Anqing City, Anhui Province, there are two mountains facing each other: Sikong Mountain and Tianzhu Mountain. Sikong Mountain is the place where Hui, the second ancestor of Zen Buddhism, could retreat to practice Zen. When Emperor Wudi of the Northern Zhou Dynasty destroyed Buddha, he lived here in seclusion. Up to now, there are still two ancestor temples. Tianzhu Mountain is the place where the Sanzu Monks stand together, and Sanzu Monastery has been flourishing up to now.

  Huike has left behind the legend of "seeking the method with broken arms". When Huike sought Dharma from his Zen ancestor, Dharma said to him, "Those who seek Dharma do not take their lives as individuals, nor their lives as fates." So Hui Keli snowed for several nights and broke his arm to show his determination. Only then did Hui Keli get the method of reassurance from Damo. Huike's thought of Zen law is mainly embodied in three public cases: "confession", "mediation" and "repayment of debts", which opens up the secularization proposition of Chinese Zen law. According to historical records, Hui Ke has changed into a transfigurator, or went to various wine shops, or slaughtered too much, or practiced street talk, or worked with others, performing smoothly and converting to the four. Some people once asked Erzu how could you get in and out of these dirty places if they had the precepts of monks? Erzu answered, "I adjust my mind. What's your business". It means that I observe and adjust my heart by myself. What's the matter with you?

  The second ancestor was the first person to sinicize Dharma Zen, but only put forward the basic outline of Chinese Zen law. Sanzu monk is hidden in Tianzhu Mountain. His thought of "peace" is a further development of the thought of "adjusting one's mind" of the two ancestors. He proposes to treat everything around the world with an ordinary mind, an equal mind and an indifferent mind. It marks the beginning of the formation of Chinese Zen thought's own characteristics, which is the basis of the theory that "ordinary mind is Tao" in the Zen Gate of later generations. Seng Guang also has a deep literary background. He broke the Zen stereotype of "non-religious biography, no writing" and wrote "Ming of Confidence". Ming of Confidence is not only the code of Zen Buddhism in China and an important historical document, but also the guiding principle of Zen Buddhism in the world. Buddhist Zen Buddhism began to write books from him. With the spread of words, Chinese Zen culture is like a breeze, blowing mountains and rivers all over the land of Shenzhou.



"Asking Huangmei about Buddhist Events" in Qihuang Chan Sect

  The Four Ancestors Temple and the Five Ancestors Temple of the Millennium Ancient Temple are located in the Xishan and Dongshan of Huangmei County, Hubei Province, respectively. Among the six ancestors of Zen Buddhism, the four ancestors Daoxin, the five ancestors Hongnin and the six ancestors Huineng all practiced in Huangmei, Hubei Province and inherited their clothes and bowls. Therefore, since ancient times, there has been the saying that "Qihuang Chan sect is under heaven, and Buddhist events ask Huangmei".

  The four ancestors of Zen Taoism were born at Wuxue in today's Hubei Province. When he was young, he showed the character of devotion to Buddha and meticulousness in everything. When he was about thirteen years old, he went to Tianzhu Mountain to follow the Sanzu monks. Ten years later, he passed on the law independently at Jizhou Temple and Lushan Dalin Temple in Ji'an, Jiangxi Province. In the seventh year of Tang Wude (624 A.D.), Taoist believers, at the request of Qizhou Taoist Master, entered Huangmei Shuangfeng Mountain to practice Buddhism and spread Buddhism, and built Zhengjue Zen Temple (now the Four Ancestors Temple). For more than 30 years, Taoist religion has been preaching in Zhengjue Zen Temple. The "Settlement and Chuanfa" and "Emphasis on both agriculture and Zen" created by Taoist religion have changed the traditional way of "one monk and one temple, one clothes and one bowl, living along with the circumstances, and constantly changing their places" to beg for a living, which has greatly promoted the development and formation of Zen sectarianization. Later, he passed the bowl of clothing to the most powerful disciple, Master Hong Nin (the Five Ancestors of Zen Buddhism).

  Hongren is a native of Huangmei in Qizhou. It is said that Dao Shin once met a child on his way to Huangmei. When he saw that the child was very beautiful and unusual, he asked him what his surname was. The child answered that his surname was yes, but it was not a constant surname, it was Buddha nature. Four fathers thought that the child had a reason to live in the world, so they accepted him as a disciple. This is Master Hong Ning. Hongren is introverted, quiet and tolerant. His classmates often bully him, he does not argue, take it calmly. Hongren did all kinds of chores during the day and meditated in the evening. Over the years, he never slackened off and became a model for his colleagues. Later, because there were too many people coming to learn from the four sides, he took a different stand, the famous Dongshan Temple, namely the Five-ancestor Temple. At that time, people called his Zen as "Dongshan Famen" or "Huangmei Zen".


Mian Mi Gong Huineng defeated Shenxiu in the parrot language and became the sixth ancestor of Zen Buddhism.

  Buddhist circles believe that "Zen should be originated from Taoism, formed in Hongren and developed in Huineng". Huineng was born in Guangdong Province. At that time, his father had died of illness. He lived by selling firewood as his foster mother. Afterwards, because of his feeling of affinity with Buddhism, he went to Huangmei Dongshan Temple in Hubei Province to worship the five ancestors of Zen Buddhism, Hong Nin, as a teacher. Huineng was originally only a rice-ladle worker in the temple, but in a snippet, "Bodhi has no trees, and the mirror is not a stage." Buddha's nature is always pure, where there is dust ", defeating the learned monk Shenxiu's"body is a Bodhi tree, heart is like a mirror. Often wipe, do not make dust, "the five ancestors of clothes and bowls, become the six ancestors of Zen.

  In order to prevent Huineng from being envied and killed, the five fathers sent him down the mountain overnight. Huineng lived in seclusion for 15 years in the mountainous areas of Lingnan. Shenxiu became a great monk of the Zen sect in the north of the Yangtze River, which was called "the South can show the north". During the early Tang Dynasty, the two men formed a huge flow of confluence between North and south. Huineng is an illiterate craftsman. He came from a common people, not according to words, and spoken in the usual oral language, so that the profound and difficult Buddhism, out of the sour smell of the turban, became a purely popular civilian philosophy. From an illiterate woodcutter, he became a famous master of the Qing Dynasty and was called "Eastern Jesus" by Westerners.


"One Flower and Five Leaves" originated in Nanyue, and the Sinicization of Buddhism was finally completed.

  October 28. Fuyan Temple, Hengshan Mountain, Nanyue, "Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi and Anhui Cultural Travel" is the first stop in Hengyang, Hunan. In front of the temple gate, several ancient ginkgo trees, which have a history of more than a thousand years, seem to be still telling the Buddhist legend of "one flower and five leaves". The completion of the localization of Chinese Buddhism took place in Hengshan Mountain of Nanyue in the Tang Dynasty.

  After Huineng attained Taoism, Huairang and Xingsi sent their disciples to Hunan and Jiangxi to carry out "strategic development". Their Zen theory and practice of "teaching other biographies without writing, pointing directly to the people's hearts, and becoming Buddha through insight" not only conquered the society at that time, but also became an important part of Chinese culture. In the history of Chinese Buddhism, Fuyan Temple and Nantai Temple in Nanyue are important cultural landmarks. When Huai Jean came to Nanyue, he lived in Fuyan Temple, gathered monks and refugees. He did not build big temples or idols, so that monks could build their own huts, open up wasteland and work, and realize the Tao while they were self-reliant.

  Huairang also used a brick to shape a broad-minded master, Mazu Daoyi. Mazu Dao practiced the "gradual understanding of the Famen" of the Northern Sect in Jie'an, Nanyue, and meditated on the rocks every day. He seldom communicated with people. One day, after Huai Jean knew it, he took a brick and rubbed it in a place not far from him. Dao Yiyi asked Huai Jean curiously, "What is it about grinding bricks?" Huai Jean said that he wanted to grind bricks into mirrors. When Tao first asked, "How can bricks be ground into mirrors?" Huai Jean said, "Since bricks can not be ground into mirrors, how can meditation become Buddha?" Once Tao realized, he worshiped Huai Yen as a teacher, specializing in "My Heart is Buddha" and "Seeing nature becomes Buddha". Later generations called the place where Huairang grinds bricks "mirror grinding table" and engraved the word "ancestral source". Grinding Mirror Platform has become one of the most famous Zen official cases in Buddhist history.

  Huairang is known as the seven ancestors of Zen. He taught his disciples extensively and got 139 disciples. He spread the six fathers'epiphany throughout the world and overseas. His disciple Mazudao founded Linji Zong and Fengyang Zong. He and Shi Xiqian, disciple of Qingyuan Xingsi, promoted the six fathers'epiphany of Famen in Nantai Temple south of Grinding Mirror Tai, and initiated Cao Dong, Yunmen and Fa Eye. From then on, Zen started from Hengshan, such as the surging river, surging in the land of China.

  Five Zen sects originated from the six ancestors of Huineng and assisted by the Enlightenment of the seven ancestors of Nanyuehuai are called "one flower and five leaves" in the history of Buddhism. Five Leaves (Linji and Cao Dong Zong are the most prosperous) originated from Nanyue and were introduced to Japan, Korea and other countries for thousands of years. Zhao Puchu, the late president of the Chinese Buddhist Association, once said, "Talking about Chinese Buddhism can not be separated from Zen, talking about Zen can not be separated from Southern Zen, talking about Southern Zen can not be separated from Nanyue, Nanyue is the place where the ancestors came from."



During the five hundred years from Sui and Tang Dynasties to Shaoxing in Southern Song Dynasty, 60 famous Zen masters got married in Hunan Province.

Because Nanyue has many flowers and leaves, Hunan has become an important landmark of Chinese Buddhist culture. Nan Huaijin, a famous scholar, has sorted out the index tables of the great virtues of Zen between 60 famous Zen masters and Hunan during the 500 years from Sui and Tang Dynasties to Shaoxing in Southern Song Dynasty. He believed that after the Sui and Tang Dynasties, besides Caoxi in Guangdong, Hunan and Jiangxi were the birthplaces of Zen Buddhism. The reason why it was influenced by the Southern Cultural Thought in Tang and Song Dynasty, just like Laozhuang Thought in Spring and Autumn Period and Warring States Period, is amazing.

From Taizong to Xuanzong in Tang Dynasty, more than one hundred years ago, it was the foundation and establishment period of culture in Tang Dynasty, with social stability, economic development and flourishing Buddhism. The combination of Buddhism and Confucianism and Taoism has become an integral part of Chinese cultural accomplishment and penetrated into the basic cultural accomplishment of the Chinese people. Many historical and cultural celebrities are also closely related to the Southern Chan. The first biography of Huineng, the sixth ancestor, was written by Wang Wei, the poet. Liu Zongyuan wrote "The Tablet of Zen Master Dajian in Caoxi" for Huineng, and Liu Yuxi also wrote "The Second Tablet of Zen Master Dajian in the Sixth Ancestor". Bai Juyi, a famous poet, was a disciple of Mazu Dao. The famous Prime Minister Li Bi lived in seclusion in Nanyue for 12 years in Tang Xuanzong. He had deep contacts with the monks in Nanyue. Up to now, on the stone wall beside Fuyan Temple, there are three big characters inscribed on it, which are handwritten by Li Bi. Here it is named Gaoming Tai. The rise of Neo-Confucianism in Song Dynasty was deeply influenced by Buddhism, especially Zen. Zhou Dunyi, a pioneer of Neo-Confucianism, had a deep attainment in Buddhism. Huxiang School is also closely linked with Zen in ideology.


Hunan people and the revival of modern Buddhism

  Since the Ming and Qing Dynasties, Buddhism has adhered to Conglin and stood firm and self-proclaimed. Since the beginning of the Opium War between China and Britain, China has suffered a series of terrible losses, loss of rights and humiliation of the country. Chinese people have been deeply stimulated. They have also reflected on traditional Buddhism. Buddhism presents a grand image of revival. Yang Renshan, a native of Shidi in Anhui Province, met Zeng Guofan with his grandfather in his teens and was highly appreciated. He also told his son Zeng Jize to cultivate this talent. With the help of Japanese Buddhist scholar Nan Tianxiong, Yang Renshan found many Buddhist treasures spread to Japan in the Tang and Song Dynasties. He decided to carry forward Buddhism all his life. He and his disciple Ouyang did not even have a famous Jinling Scripture office in Nanjing. Tan Sitong, Liang Qichao and Zhang Taiyan were all deeply influenced by their devotion to Buddhism.

  In the early years of the Republic of China, Bazhitou, a famous poet and monk from Xiangtan, Hunan Province, convened representatives of the national monk community to establish the Chinese Buddhist Association at Liuyun Temple in Shanghai as the first president. Later, there were warlords plotting monk property. He argued for it and died in indignation. Toutuo's life of asceticism, for the survival of Buddhism until his devotion, clearly reflects the spiritual tradition of saving the world in Hunan culture. His disciple, Master Taixu, his good friend and Master Xuyun of Hunan Xiangxiang also advocated and practiced the tenet of "human Buddhism" and created a new situation for the revival of Buddhism in modern China. (Kuang Ping Tang Jun)



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  In addition to the achievements of the establishment of Buddhist Zen, there are many eminent monks and factions in the four provinces of Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi and Anhui, which occupy an important position in the history of Buddhism.

During the Northern and Southern Dynasties, Buddhism in Hunan was relatively prosperous. Before Huaijean, there was another famous monk Huisi in Nanyue. Huisi was respected as the second ancestor of Tiantai Zong. He lived in Nanyue for 10 years. On the basis of his master Beiqi Huiwen's "one mind, three views", he put forward the idea of "ten likes are the same" and passed it on to the wise master, who eventually founded Tiantai Zong.

  In addition to the evolution of Zen into five sects and seven sects, the Lushan Order founded by Huiyuan in the Eastern Jin Dynasty also had a great influence at that time. Huiyuan became a monk at the age of 21 with Tao'an, a master who had been able to teach for 23 years. He was ordered to distribute in Xiangyang, Hubei Province. He joined Lushan in Xian'an for more than 30 years to promote Buddhism and Zen and Confucianism and Buddhism. For a time, both Chinese and foreign eminent monks were ignorant that they could not reach the Linsi Temple in Lushan.

  Jiuhua Mountain in Anhui is known as "the first mountain in the south of the Yangtze River", and is one of the four famous Buddhist mountains in China. In the late Kaiyuan period of the Tang Dynasty, Jin Qiaojue, Prince of Xinluo, came to China and began his 75-year long spiritual career in Jiuhua Mountain. Jin Qiaojue was respected as a Tibetan Bodhisattva after his death. Since then, Jiuhua Mountain has become a place for Tibetan Bodhisattvas and has been worshipped by pilgrims at home and abroad.

  As early as the Eastern Han Dynasty, Buddhism had been introduced into Hubei. Through the evolution of the past dynasties, the pattern of "Ezhou translation, Xiangyang foundation, Yuquan Zong, Jingzhou promotion, Zen Qihuang" was gradually formed.



Fu Yan Temple

Nanyue is a famous Buddhist shrine, one of the ten forests of Buddhism. Originally known as Prajna Temple, also known as Prajna Temple, Huisi, the second ancestor of the Buddhist Tiantai Sect, was built in the first year of Guangda in the Chen Dynasty (AD 567). Tang Dynasty was born three years ago. Huaiyen, the seven ancestors of Zen, came to Hengshan Mountain in Nanyue and was stationed here in Xixi. Today, there is a banner of "the court of the world" on the Mountain Gate of Fuyan Temple. On both sides, there are vertical links of "the ancient temples of the Six Dynasties" and "the seven ancestors'Dao field", which refers to this period of history. During the Song Dynasty, a monk named Fuyan built an additional monastery and planted 10 cypress trees, which gave the monastery its name.

Nan Tai Temple

Known as "the source of law under heaven", it is about 2 kilometers away from Fuyan Temple. During the reign of Liang Tianjian in the Southern Dynasty, HuaiJean disciple Xiqian monk named it Nantai Temple during the reign of Tang Tianbao. Nantai Temple was regarded as the ancestral court by Cao Dong Zong of Japanese Buddhism. In 1903, Mei Xiaolai, a prominent monk of Cao Dong Zong of Japan, came to Nantai Temple successively and gave many Tibetan scriptures to Nantai Temple, leaving a good story of "Mei Xiao giving scriptures".


  A thousand years of preaching

  Four famous Taoist mountains, Hubei, Jiangxi and Anhui account for three-quarters of the total.


  On the evening of October 24, Wudang Mountain, Shiyan, Hubei Province. Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi and Anhui visiting delegation arrived at Wudang Yuxu Palace in the twilight. The blond and blue-eyed Taijiyang disciples are here to learn from the Chinese Master, and they are very serious about their tactics. Today, Wudang is famous for its martial arts. It attracts 7,000 disciples every year.

  Wudang Wushu is an important part of Taoist culture in Wudang Mountain. Taoism is a traditional religion deeply rooted in China and originated from ancient Chinese culture. It mainly comes from ancient religion, folk witchcraft and immortal prescription. Based on the philosophy of Laozhuang in Pre-Qin Dynasty and Taoism in Qin and Han Dynasty, it has formed a unique set of teaching and missionary organizations. Taoism has a long-term development in Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi and Anhui provinces. Ancient Chinese religions were famous mountains. They believed that the mountain height was close to the sky and was the place where clouds and rain came and went. Wudang Mountain in Hubei, Longhu Mountain in Jiangxi and Qiyun Mountain in Anhui were among the four famous mountains of Taoism in China.



Zhang Daoling founded Taoism in Jiangxi and Longhu Mountain became the ancestor of Taoism

  Since ancient times, the famous mountains and rivers in Jiangxi have been the important places for the activities of immortal alchemists. Before the formation of Taoism, it was said that Linglun, the music official of the Yellow Emperor, once lived in seclusion in Xishan, Nanchang. According to the Lushan Records, it is said that in the Western Zhou Dynasty, a man named Kuang secular once lived in seclusion in Lushan Mountain, Jiujiang. He was respected by people at that time. Later, he was named "Ming Gong of Antarctica" by Emperor Wudi of Han Dynasty, who was keen on seeking immortality and longing for immortality.

  From Zhang Ling, the founder of Taoism in China, to Jiangxi Province in the second year of Yongyuan in the Eastern Han Dynasty (AD 90), organized Taoism began to develop.

  Zhang Ling is the first generation of Taoist teacher in Longhushan, Zhang Daoling. He initiated Taoists to study Lao Tzu's Tao Te Ching, and was recognized as the founder of Taoism by the historians and religious circles. During the Eastern Han Dynasty and Emperor's reign, Zhang Daoling and his disciple Wang Chang went to Yunjin Mountain to refine the "Nine Heavens God Dan". Dancheng Dragon and Tiger were present, so Yunjin Mountain was renamed Longhu Mountain. Longhu Mountain has become the Taoist ancestral home for Taoists at home and abroad because of the preaching of Zhang Tianshi in past dynasties.

  Tianshifu is a very important building in Longhushan Daoguan Mansion Court. It is known as the ancestral court and sacred place of Taoism. Xuanzong of Tang Dynasty made Zhang Daoling a "Taishi" and Kublai Khai of Yuan Dynasty made Zhang Zongyan a "heavenly teacher of the next Han Dynasty". In history, dozens of Zhang Tianshi were given the title by the emperor. Zhang Tianshi developed from the leader of a religion to the leader of the three mountains (Longhushan, Maoshan, Gezaoshan), and then to the leader of Taoism under the world. In ancient times, it was known as "Nanzhang (Zhang Tianshi) Beikong (Confucius)".



Wudang Mountain is Zhenwu Daochang, Zhang Sanfeng develops Wudang Wushu

  Ancient Jingchu culture is one of the main sources of Taoism. The Shinto witchcraft of Chu culture has been transformed and inherited by Taoist Fuzhuan School. Fuzhuan, Zhai dipping sauce, Keyi, etc. are derived from Chu Wushu. Wudang Mountain Taoism retains a lot of Chu cultural heritage.

  During the Qin and Han Dynasties, Wudang Mountain was a place for immortals, alchemists, hermits and herbalists to yearn for; during the Wei, Jin, Southern and Southern Dynasties, there was a marked increase in the number of hermits living in Wudang Mountain; in the late Tang Dynasty, Wudang Mountain was called the Ninth Fortune Place by Taoism; in the Song Dynasty, Taoist scriptures respectfully called this mountain a place for true Wudang practice, and Wudang Taoism formally formed; in the Ming Dynasty, Chengzu built the Temple of Wudang Mountain Pal Flourishing situation.

  Zhenwu, known as Xuanwu in ancient times, is often called the Arctic Zhenwu Xuantian Emperor in Taoist scriptures, and is generally honored as "Xuandi". Xuanwu was the God of the north in ancient Chinese religion. In the Northern Song Dynasty, Zhenzong changed its name to Zhenwu because he avoided the name of Zhao Xuanlang, the sage ancestor. In the early Song Dynasty, the popular Taoist Sutra called Zhenwu the Prince of the Pure Pleasure Kingdom. When Emperor Huang entered Wudang Mountain to practise Buddhism, it took 42 years for him to succeed and soar. When the Jade Emperor heard of his bravery, he sent him to guard the north and cut down demons. In the Taoist Sutras of the Southern Song Dynasty, Zhenwu was named "Emperor Xuantian" by the Jade Emperor because of its merit in demonizing. As the northern border of Song Dynasty was always threatened by the nomadic nation's military, the emperors and ministers of Song Dynasty worshiped Zhenwu god, and the folk worship of Zhenwu became more and more popular. On March 3, "Zhenwu Christmas Day" and September 9, "Zhenwu Shengtian Day" became a grand Taoist folk festival. The edition and publication of scriptures by the Wudang Taoists in Yuan Dynasty made the story of Zhenwu God practicing immortality and Taoism in Wudang Mountain more abundant. Zhenwu Daoist Style is worshipped by the world.

  At the end of Tang Dynasty, Du Guangting, a famous Taoist priest, compiled "Reading Records of Famous Mountains in Dongtian Fudi Yue". Wudang Mountain was listed as the Ninth Fudi in the Thirty-six and Seventy-two Fudi of Taoism. In the Ming Dynasty, Chengzu Zhu Di advocated the spirit of Zhenwu to show Yin and bless Yanjun when he launched the battle of Jing Nan. After taking office, he advocated the "Divine Divinity of Monarchy" and constructed the concept of Wudang Palace on a large scale to support Wudang Taoism.

  Wudang Wushu is an important part of Taoist culture in Wudang Mountain. According to documentary records, Wudang Taoist monk Zhang Sanfeng is a key figure connecting Wudang Wushu from the past to the next. Because of his innovation and teaching, Wudang Wushu has become a famous Chinese Wushu. Since the Ming and Qing Dynasties, Wushu circles have always said that "Shaolin in the North and Wudang in the South".



Qiyunshan, Xiaowudang in the South of the Yangtze River: "The First Village of Taoism in China"

  Anhui Taoist culture mainly centers on Chaohu, Wuhu and Ma'anshan in the lower reaches of the Anhui River. There are three places in Anhui Province, namely, buried hill cave and Jinting Mountain and Jilong Mountain in Chaohu Lake area.

The buried hill cave in Tianzhu Mountain, where Zuo Ci once practiced alchemy, was honored as "Tianzhu Zhenren" by Taoism; Jilong Mountain in Hexian County, which is the forty-three blessed places of seventy-two blessed places; Du Guangting, a famous Taoist priest in the late Tang Dynasty, gathered here to lecture; Jinting Mountain in Chaohu Lake, which is the eighteen blessed places of seventy-two blessed places of Taoism. Ma'anshan is the place where Li Bai died. Li Bai is famous for his "Poetry Immortal". In fact, he is also a Taoist figure, named "Jianyi Zhenren in the Shang Qing Dynasty". He is a representative of Taoist poetry and literature.

  Qiyun Mountain, the most famous Taoist mountain in Anhui Province, is one of the four famous Taoist mountains in China. Qiyun Mountain is also known as Baiyue Mountain. Emperor Qianlong of Qing Dynasty called it "the world's best scenic spot, the first mountain in the south of the Yangtze River". Xu Xiake, a traveler of Ming Dynasty, twice visited Qiyun Mountain, and expressed the sigh of "the bead curtain flying, the strangest being the first". Qiyunshan Taoism developed from a tribe of Qingwei School in Wudang Mountain, Hubei Province. It worshipped Zhenwu Emperor. Its palace buildings and Taoist rules and regulations all imitated Wudang and were known as "Xiaowudang in the south of the Yangtze River". Protestant missionaries retain the non-hereditary system of Quanzhen religion: "Father does not preach son, brother does not preach brother".

  In the eleventh year of Jiajing, Zhengyi's 48th generation descendants, Han Tianshi, led the crowd to Qiyunshan for the emperor's son, who had to sign in order to give birth to a son. Emperor Jiajing was very happy. He ordered to build the Taisu Palace and wrote the Imperial Monument. After that, Qiyunshan became famous and became a famous Taoist Temple of the Zhengyi School in the south of the Yangtze River.

  The Zhengyi faction in Qiyunshan is relatively loose in organization and not very strict in discipline. They can have family wives and children. They are not afraid of wine and meat in non-Zhai, and their wives, families and children live with them in the palace of Taoist courtyard. Some people use "the first village of Taoism in China" to describe the Taoist culture in Qiyunshan, which is very folk and local.



Fuqiu Mountain, the birthplace of Taoism in Hunan Province

  Hunan is also an important area for Taoist propaganda and activities. Hunan occupies six "Dongtian" and twelve "Futian" respectively in "Thirty-six Dongtian" and "Seventy-two Futian".

Nanyue is the only famous mountain where Buddhism and Taoism coexist. Legend has it that as early as the founding period of Taoism, Zhang Daoling, who founded Wuduomidao in the late Eastern Han Dynasty, visited the Nanyue Mountains from Tianmu Mountain to pay tribute to Jade, Guangtian Altar and Li Zhu Rongjun Temple. The official spread of Taoism in Hunan began with Wei Huacun, a famous female Taoist aunt in the Eastern Jin Dynasty. She devoted herself to Taoism in Nanyue for 16 years. She disseminated the scriptures of the Upper Qing Dynasty. She was the founder of the Upper Qing School of Taoism and sowed the seeds of Taoism first in Hunan. She was named Mrs. Nanyue and Mrs. Wei.

  Another famous Taoist mountain in Hunan is located in Fuqiu Mountain of Taojiang River in Yiyang, the birthplace of Hunan Taoism. It is historically known as "South Chu Scenic Spot" and "the first Taochang in central Hunan".

  Fuqiu Mountain is famous for the immortal Fuqiuzi who practiced here and ascended to heaven. It is also famous for being a Taoist Temple of Zhenwu ancestor. The unique "toothstone" of Fuqiu Mountain has obvious dental marks. Legend has it that when Fuqiu Zi practiced in Fuqiu Mountain, he "boiled stone for grain" and ate the rest. Legend has it that in ancient times, Zhenwu ancestors drove "Flying Stone House" to Fuqiu Mountain to lock Dongting Nielong Town in the wind tunnel of Fuqiu Mountain. During the Ming and Qing dynasties, the court set up a "Daoist Discipline Department" in Fuqiu Mountain to manage the jungles of all Taoist parties in Hunan, which had a high historical status.

  There is still a historic site "Ziliangyan" in Taohua River today. It is said that it is also the place where the immortal Fuqiuzi practices. "Chao Jinziliangyan, night lodging Fuqiuguan". Tao Shu, governor of Liangjiang in Qing Dynasty, inscribed on the stone wall of Ziliangyan: "Stone breaks the sky, Xianshan first". Later, the reservoir construction sank to the bottom of the water. (Kuang Ping)